Illustrated History of the French Saint novels
- 1. The "originals" (1938-1949)
- 1b. The Translators: the Michel-Tyls
- 1c. The Cover Artist: Regino Bernad
- 1d. The "originals" -- continued (1938-1949)
- 2. The radio "fix-ups" (1950-1953)
- 3. The "comic stories"- first period (1954-1959)
- 4. The "comic stories" - second period (1959-1963)
- 5. The end (1964-1966)
- 5b. Uncollected stories
- 6. Rebirth?
- 7. Conclusion
- Appendix 1: Other Fayard Imprints
- Appendix 2: Bibliography
- Appendix 3: On French Radio
- Appendix 4: French-English Text Comparisons
Old titles were kept in print, often reissued under new covers, while new ones were released, virtually on a quarterly basis during the 1950s and 1960s. These books were inexpensive and entertaining, and proved extremely popular with the French public. They sported distinctive, attractive color covers, and were easily found on the newstands, in railway stations, etc.
The purpose of this site is to present a history of the publication of these French Saint works. In the absence of exhaustive published research, I had to rely for information mostly on the set of books available to me, as well as information provided by Ian Dickerson, Burl Barer, Jean-Luc Buard, Francis Valery, and Daniel Bodenheimer. I welcome any further corrections and additions submitted by the readers.
The history of the French Saint books is little known. Most, if not all, French readers assume that there is no difference between the French pastiches, written by Madeleine Michel-Tyl, but credited to Leslie Charteris, and the originals. Even a series of reprints by the Livre de Poche publishing house smoothly proceeded to reissue originals and pastiches side by side, as if they were all the work of Leslie Charteris.
I know of no other case in which a foreign publisher was allowed to generate -- and market so successfully ! -- such a large number of pastiches -- a number greater, in fact, than that of the originals. Certainly, from both a quantitative and qualitative standpoint, the contributions of Edmond and Madeleine Michel-Tyl to the Saint canon deserves much recognition.
The history of the French Saint books published by Librairie Arthème Fayard (and others) can pretty much be broken into five sections:
(1) the "originals", i.e.: the translations and/or adaptations of Leslie Charteris' work, which fill the first twenty-five slots in the series.
(2) the radio "fix-ups" (a term coined by critic Peter Nicholls, meaning a book composed of separate stories cemented together), derived from the Saint radio scripts, which occupy the next ten slots.
(3) and (4) the "comic stories", books loosely adapted from the New York Herald-Tribune comic-strip which fill almost the entirety of the rest of the series. (This period can itself be divided into two "sub-periods", according to style and contents.)
(5) a few, latter-day, Charteris' short-story collections, some uncollected stories, and finally, the publication in the early 1980s of a number of Charteris "collaborations.
For a complete gallery of all the covers of the Fayard editions, click here.
1. The "originals" (1938-1949)
The Fayard Saint series debuted with The Saint in New York (No. 1) which, as every devotee knows, opens with a memo sent by Teal to Fernack recapping some of Simon Templar's more notorious adventures, including Meet the Tiger!, The Last Hero and Knight Templar. Why therefore begin a series with material which was bound to confuse a new reader?
Further confusion must have ensued when one realizes that the second volume released by Fayard was Knight Templar (translated under the title of The Heroic Adventure), a direct sequel to The Last Hero.
The reason for this strange release pattern is that there were previous French Saint editions of The Last Hero and Meet the Tiger!, published in 1935 by Editions Gallimard in their "Detective" imprint. Fayard, therefore, did not have the rights to publish these books -- yet -- but legitimately assumed that the reader of the times could refer to them if they wished to do so.
The copyright on The Saint in New York is 1938. Normally, the French copyright is supposed to indicate the date of the first French publication of a work (i.e.: referring to a specific translation). However, mistakes creep up frequently. Sometimes, the later date of printing of a subsequent edition is substituted. For example, the copyright on a subsequent edition of Knight Templar is 1946, even though the first Fayard edition of that book was released in 1938. The copyright on Thieves' Picnic (No. 10) is mistakenly listed as 1930, even though that particular book was written by Leslie Charteris in 1937! This is just to illustrate the fact that French copyright mentions are notoriously unreliable, thus making serious research all but impossible.
Dedicated researchers might further note that the copyright on Thieves' Picnic is in the name of "A. Fayard et Cie (& Co.)", while all the other books in the series were copyrighted in the names of "F. Brouty, J. Fayard et Cie" until 1956 (No. 47), when suddenly the copyright became "Librairie Arthème Fayard", until the end of the series. One can only assume that F. Brouty bought stock in the original Arthème Fayard publishing company sometime around 1939, at which time the original Arthème Fayard was succeeded by J. Fayard. The later change to Librairie Arthème Fayard must have been the result of some form of corporate restructuring.
Meet the Tiger! and The Last Hero were eventually re-released, first by Gallimard again in 1951, then by Fayard in 1962, respectively as No. 70 and No. 72 in the series. However, the copyright on these two books -- even in the Fayard edition -- remains Gallimard's, even though the books were translated by the same writer. From this, it is clear that, even though Meet the Tiger! and The Last Hero were first published in France in the 1930s, for some contractual reasons, the rights to these novels did not become available to Fayard until the early 1960s.
1b. The Translators: the Michel-Tyls
The matter of the identity of the translator of the French Saint books remained for a long time relatively clouded in mystery. Nos. 1 to 6, 9 to 14, 23 and 70 (Meet the Tiger!) were credited to "E. Michel-Tyl", with No. 19 being specifically credited to "Ed. Michel-Tyl" -- "Ed." being for Edmond.
Edmond Michel-Tyl (1891-1949) was the author of a number of adventure and romance novels, including Marquita au Col d'Or [Marquita of the Golden Neck] (Tallandier, 1936) and La Vallée du Mystère [The Valley of Mystery] (Librairie des Champs-Élysées, 1940); he also translated many other crime novels, such as William Irish's The Bride Wore Black, Rex Stout's Nero Wolfe, Rafael Sabatini's Sea Hawk and Captain Blood, Dashiell Hammett's The Maltese Falcon, and novels by R. K. Goldman, Hugh Austin, Sidney Fairway, Erskine Caldwell, etc.
No. 8 (in a later edition) and Nos. 27 to 29 are credited "M.-E. Michel-Tyl" -- note the periods and the hyphen. All this confusion in the credits merely reflects the fact that, after Edmond Michel-Tyl's death in 1949, his wife, Madeleine (who had previously been collaborating with her husband), took over his duties.
Nos. 7 and 15 (in later editions), Nos. 22, 24 to 26, 30 to 69, 71, 72 (The Last Hero, which is odd since, in in all logic, this book should have been translated by Edmond and not by Madeleine), Nos. 73 to 78 are all credited to "M. Michel-Tyl" -- the credit normally given to Madeleine Michel-Tyl.
Clearly, mistakes were made in the attribution of credits in the reprinting of later editions, and it is likely that Nos. 7, 8 and 15 -- at least -- are indeed the work of Edmond and not of Madeleine, who took over the series somewhere in the mid-No.20s -- probably with No. 24, the first of that sequence to be credited to "M. Michel-Tyl" instead of "E. Michel-Tyl".
Finally, a letter from Jenny Bradley, Leslie Charteris' French agent, dated 27th February 1969, indicates that Madeleine Michel-Tyl was somewhat extensively assisted by Fayard editor Francis Didelot, himself a well-known writer/editor of French mystery novels. Mrs. Charteris remarked that Leslie Charteris himself stepped in when the quality of the French novels had started to come down, and ended up working in "quite a close partnership" with Madeleine Michel-Tyl. He offered the New York Herald-Tribune comic strips as source material -- which contained much specific dialogue as well as descriptions -- thereby facilitating the novelisation process.
In any event, the Michel-Tyls are, without a doubt, the greatest of all of Leslie Charteris' "collaborators" and, to the extent that they "rewrote" the original comic-strip stories, virtually co-authors. Edmond Michel-Tyl, a talented writer in his own right, succeeded wonderfully in duplicating Charteris' light style and wry characterization in French, perhaps inspired by, or following in the literary tracks of, Maurice Leblanc, creator of the incredibly popular character of Arsène Lupin, gentleman-burglar, which must have been one of Charteris' major source of inspiration when creating the Saint.
1c. The Cover Artist: Regino Bernad
Born in Zaragosa (Spain) in 1902, Regino Bernad moved to France in 1924 and eventually became a French citizen in 1957. He first worked as an advertising artist, then in 1931 began contributing cartoons and illustrations to daily papers such as Le Rire, Frou-Frou, etc.
In 1951, Bernad drew the daily comic strip Balaoo for the daily newspaper France-Soir. Balaoo was an adaptation of a novel by famous writer Gaston Leroux (Phantom of the Opera) about a murderous ape-man.
For 15 years, also for France-Soir, Bernad drew the Cheri-Bibi daily strip (see left), also based on a series of novels by Leroux, featuring the adventures of the eponymous convict. The Cheri-Bibi strip was written by Leroux's own son, G.-A. Leroux. It was very successful and, in its totality, comprised 4462 strips.
Bernad passed away in 1972.
1d. The "originals" -- continued (1938-1949)
After Knight Templar (No. 2) and She was a Lady (No. 3), the Fayard series continued with Saint Overboard (No. 4), Alias the Saint (No. 5), Getaway (No. 6) and The Saint versus Scotland Yard (No. 7), the latter bizarrely copyrighted in 1956 in a later edition printed in 1964, even though the first Fayard edition was released in 1939, illustrating again the vagaries of French copyrights.
The next two volumes complicate the researcher's life. The first, released under the translated title of The Saint Here! (No. 8), in addition to being also wrongly copyrighted to 1951 (even though it was originally released in 1940), contained only two stories, The Gold Standard and The Death Penalty, taken from the original three-story collection The Saint and Mr.Teal (a.k.a. Once More the Saint). The third story, The Man from St.Louis, for reasons unknown, was published in The Companions of the Saint (No. 9), an equally incomplete translation of the original three-story collection Enter the Saint.
Having to make room for The Man from St.Louis in The Companions of the Saint, Fayard then chose to defer the publication of the first story of that book, The Man Who Was Clever, to No. 18 of its own series. To further complicate matters, The Man from St. Louis, The Death Penalty and The Gold Standard were all released separately in 1950, under different titles, by another French publisher, Editions Ferenczi, in their "Le Verrou" (The Deadbolt) imprint.
As we have seen, No. 10 was a straightforward adaptation of Thieves' Picnic (it only stands out because of its puzzling 1930 copyright), No. 11 of The Misfortunes of Mr.Teal and No. 12 of Follow the Saint. These three books were published in 1941.
After an interruption due to the war, difficulties begin again with No.13, which was released in 1945. Again for reasons unknown, Fayard chose to rearrange the order of the short stories published. No.13, whose French title translates as The Saint Goes to War, reprinted The Wonderful War from Featuring the Saint, and The High Fence and The Case of the Frightened Innkeeper from The Saint Goes On. The third story of that volume, The Elusive Ellshaw, was later used in No. 22. As for the other two stories from Featuring the Saint (The Logical Adventure and The Man Who Could Not Die), they were used in conjunction with The Man Who Was Clever (see above) to make up No.18, entitled The Mark of the Saint.
The series continued with adaptations of The Saint on Guard (No.14) and The Saint Plays with Fire a.k.a. Prelude for War (No. 15). This title may lead to some confusion as a latter volume (No. 37) bears a French title which also translates as The Saint Plays with Fire, while No.15's French title translates as The Saint Plays... And Wins.
The Ace of Knaves (No. 16) and The Saint in Miami (No. 17) followed. No. 18 was, in effect, an original collection by gathering the three stories listed above, under the title of The Mark of the Saint.
This was followed by an adaptation of The Saint Steps In (No. 19) and The Saint Goes West (No. 20). Perhaps for reasons of space, the latter only reprinted the Arizona and Hollywood stories. Fayard eventually combined the third story, Palm Springs, with The Ellusive Ellshaw to make yet one more "original" collection, under the title of The Saint Leads the Dance (No. 22). In 1960, a French motion picture adapting the Palm Springs short story was released under the same title.
The series went on, with adaptations of The Saint Sees It Through (No. 21) and Call for the Saint (No. 23), released in 1948. Fayard then discovered that they were running out of original Saint stories, just as the popularity of their books in France was growing by leaps and bounds.
First, they decided to put out two more collections of short stories collections. No. 25 was a straightforward translation of Saint Errant.
No. 24, on the other hand, was an original collection, entitled The Saint Has Fun. In this book, Fayard picked and chose stories from The Brightest Buccaneer (two stories), The Saint Intervenes (five stories) and The Happy Highwayman (seven stories). This was the first book sequentially credited to Madeleine Michel-Tyl, barring exceptions made for possibly erroneous credits in earlier volumes.
The stories which were not included in The Saint Has Fun were later used in two more original collections, released as No. 69 (The Trumps of the Saint) and No. 76 (Again the Saint!). Why were these stories not used earlier? I do not know.
The Noble Sportsman (from The Saint Intervenes) was translated and published in Le Saint Detective Magazine No. 24, but not included in the books. The Uncritical Publisher (also from The Saint Intervenes) was not translated at all! The likely reason for these rather bizarre omissions is either page count, or the editors simply forgot about them! All in all, a rather confusing situation.
(Note: There is a 1945 French-Canadian of The Saint Intervenes, Le Saint intervient, published by Editions Modernes Ltée, translated by Madeleine Didayer, and it is likely that the "missing" stories were included there.)
In any event, with less original material to translate, and a growing demand for more stories, the time had come for Fayard to develop its own homegrown substitute.
2. The radio "fix-ups" (1950-1953)
The first French Saint pastiche, No. 26 in the series, was published in 1950 under the title When the Saint Meddles. It was really an anthology of three stories. In From Soja to Textile (source material unknown), Simon exposes Lyman, a killer who uses an ultrasound musical instrument to commit murder. In On the Edge of the Grave (based on the radio script The Man Who Sang by Maurice Zimm), he helps Fernack arrest a gangster, Dixon, who had secretly killed his associate, Blakely, who had stolen a fortune in US Bonds. Finally, in The Doll's Head, which was based on the radio script Doll With a Broken Head by Les Crutchfield, Simon finds a Chinese emerald hidden inside a doll.
(I am very much indebted to Burl Barer's superb book The Saint: A Complete History (McFarland, 1993) for the research concerning the radio scripts.)
The radio "fix-ups" were undoubtedly responsible for the bad reputation that the French Saint pastiches may have acquired. It was stated in Barer's book (page 99) that the first few were reviewed, then rejected by Dutch publisher A. W. Bruna & Zoon. (This, as it turns out, was entirely inaccurate.) Furthermore, it is reported that Mr. Margulies, a friend of Charteris, and Mr. Attenborough of Hodder & Stoughton felt that the French Saint pastiches were badly done and would, if retranslated into English, do great harm to Charteris' reputation.
Despite this, it is worth noting that the Dutch Saint series continued very successfully for many years relying on translastions of the French Saint. (See article by Rinus Daane of the Dutch Saint.)
Upon closer examination, this accusation appears to be somewhat well-founded, but the blame lies not with the French publisher and/or Madeleine Michel-Tyl, but with the material handed to her, presumably by Charteris himself or his publishers. I am referring, of course, to the radio scripts themselves.
Instead of his suave and debonair self, a British version of Arsène Lupin, Simon suddenly turns into an American tough guy, straight out of a Peter Cheyney novel. And, needless to say, all the stories now take place in America. The transition is awkward at best, and reflects more on Michel-Tyl's desire, at first, to be faithful to the tone of the material she was given, rather than her own presumed incompetence.
Michel-Tyl's adaptation from the radio scripts are, stylistically and plot-wise, competent. But they just do not feel like Saint novels -- at least from a purist's eye -- and one can understand the Dutch publisher's rejection.
On the other hand, one strongly questions Mrrs. Attenborough's and Margulies' judgment. Certainly, their harsh comment regarding the quality of Michel-Tyl's work was not only unwarranted, but ignorant. One wonders if their knowledge of French was adequate enough to enable them to properly assess the situation. In any event, no matter how flawed their reasoning may have been, their decision was ultimately right, since Michel-Tyl's radio "fix-ups" would probably have not survived one more translation, back into English.
Certainly, it would appear that both Fayard and Michel-Tyl quickly reached the same conclusion than the Dutch publisher. No. 27 in the series, entitled The Law of the Saint, was another three-story anthology written in the "tough guy" mode, in the same style that must have put off the Dutch publisher, if he ever saw it. The book included The Wine Bottle Rack, based on radio script Family Gun Play by Michael Cramoy; The Bells, based on the radio script Rare Painting Smugglers by Michael Cramoy; and The Filipino Carpet, based on radio script Murder for a Buried Treasure, also by Michael Cramoy. Wisely, Michel-Tyl tried, whenever she could, to combine radio scripts by the same writer.
Starting with No. 28, Michel-Tyl slowly reverted to using a style that became increasingly "laid back", closer to that of the original Saint. She was also no longer satisfied with simply adapting three scripts into three short stories, but started creatively weaving three unconnected scripts into one single novel, often changing the names of the characters, etc. (This elaborate reconstruction work makes the discovery of the source material very difficult.)
No. 28, entitled The Saint Brings Back an Heir, was one single novel, clearly made up of three interconnected stories. The first, The Saint's Mission (possibly but, in that case, very loosely based on Murder on the High Seas by Michael Cramoy), sets the stage: Hamilton, Simon's OSS contact, asks the Saint to bring back the heir to an enormous forture, one Bodhan Kupchinsky, from India. Bodhan turns out to be an old scientist. On board the return ship, Simon foils a plot by the villainous Nadia to kill Bodhan and take his place. The story continues with The Lions' Train, based on Michael Cramoy's Baseball Team Shooting, and finally culminates with King Olsen, based on Sidney Marshall's The Steel Ice Murders.
With No. 29, entitled The Saint Refuses to Sing, Michel-Tyl became increasingly clever in her "fix-up" technique, smoothly blending plot threads from Michael Cramoy's Blackmail and Ken Crossin's Baby Adoption Blackmail Ring into an excellent thriller about a nationwide ring of blackmailers. No. 30, The Saint and the Lame Duck, similarly combined Michael Cramoy's The Disappearing Dentist, Howard Dimsdale's Tiger by the Tail and Margolis & Morheim's Night Club Story.
No. 31, The Saint and the Black Widow, was probably Michel-Tyl's best "fix-up" of the period. It combined three of Cramoy's best efforts: Hard Money, The Latest Style in Murder and Pearls Before Swine into a tautly-paced, relentless thriller, at the end of which Simon discovers that his lady companion, Marie Virva, who called on him to solve the murder of her ex-husband, in in reality the mysterious Black Widow, the leader of the merciless gang of racketeers -- a substial dramatic improvement on the original scripts.
The next volume, The Angels Call For the Saint (No. 32), takes place in Los Angeles and combined three of Howard Dimsdale's scripts: Playing with Fire, The Fence and Crime Wave. Then, The Saint Bets on Death (No. 33) combined Dimsdale's The Saint is Framed with two Joel Murcott scripts: The Death of a Fighter and Jailbreak.
Even though Michel-Tyl had managed, to a large extent, to turn a sow's ear into a silk purse, the days of the "tough guy" Saint were numbered. Three years later, in 1954, Fayard either decided to discontinue the use of the radio scripts, or someone else, very likely Leslie Charteris himself, instructed that they no longer be used. Mrs. Charteris' comment that her husband intervened when he felt that the quality of the novelizations had become unacceptable, and offering instead the comic scripts that he had himself written as source material, would appear to validate the second hypothesis.
In any event, Fayard switched to the New York Herald- Tribune comic-strips for inspiration for its Saint novels. Because these were written by Charteris, with full dialogue and descriptions, they provided Madeleine Michel-Tyl and her editors with much better quality source material.
In total, and as far as I can determine, only twenty-four radio scripts were used, and all came from the first fifty-one episode series. No later scripts seem to have been used. (This information is difficult to ascertain as it requires careful plot comparisons.)
3. The "comic stories"- first period (1954-1959)
The first story adapted from the NYH-T comic-strip was No. 34, The Saint Refuses a Crown, in which Simon helps Elaine Valdor, heir to the crown of Roldavia, regain her throne and defeat Prince Hugo and villainous financier Lord Bullfish. At the end, Simon turns down her offer to become her consort. Barer quotes Charteris (page 401) as saying that, in the original story which he wrote, the fictional Ruritania-like country was called Valdor, and he was displeased by the decision of the French editors to rename it Roldavia.
Unlike what is stated in Barer's book (page 402), the next French Saint pastiche, No. 35, The Saint Battles a Phantom, was not, at last entirely, based on a NYH-T comic-strip. A careful review of the plot shows that it incorporated elements from two radio scripts, Ken Crossen's With No Tomorrow and Louis Vittes' The Case of the Unkindest Cut, with some additional material which, if not new, may or may not have come from the NYH-T. In this story, drug kingpin Warner Wilson uses Simon to eliminate his four partners: Lane, Becker, Harlan and Henley, so that all the profits from their traffic will remain his alone.
This plot is remarkably similar to that of The Saint in New York -- a fact pointedly acknowledged by Michel-Tyl who, at the end of the book, inserted a line of dialog in which Simon tells the villain that "once in New York, someone tried to play the same trick on him; he was called the Big Man and he died on the electric chair." The rest of the plot revolves around the Crestview medical facility and Lane's use of Chinese coffins to smuggle drugs.
The titles of No. 35 translates as The Saint Battles a Phantom and that of No.36 as The Saint Discovers Virus 13, although the title pages of each book bears a mention of different original English titles, respectively The Saint Meets a Ghost and The Saint Takes Germs. This is almost a unique occurrence, which will be repeated only once more, with No. 46, The Saint Meets a Flying Saucer.
In the absence of a comprehensive list of synopses of the NYH-T strips equivalent to Barer's list of radio script synopses, to which the reader could easily refer, I have elected to provide here brief plot summaries of the French NYH-T pastiches, which may then help those familiar with the strips to match the French novels with their "sources". Certainly, the concept of comic-strips being turned into novelizations remains unique to this day.
In The Saint Discovers Virus 13 (No. 36), Simon fights a nazi scientist, Anton Morgan, and his beautiful, blonde wife, Greta, to prevent the release of the deadly Virus 13. Simon eventually kills Anton but Greta escapes with the money. Greta went on to become a regular opponent in the series, returning in Nos. 43, 47, 53, 62 and 75. She is very much in love with Simon, and always tries to seduce him into joining her nefarious schemes. Naturally, Simon always refuses, at which point Greta, somewhat reluctantly, one feels, attempts to kill him. Conversely, Simon does not seem displeased when, at the end of each novel, Greta manages to escape from the Law.
No. 37, entitled The Saint Plays with Fire (not to be confused with No. 15), takes place in Florida, with the character of Sheriff Haskins (from No. 17) making a return appearance. In it, Simon, Patricia and Hoppy foil a scheme by circus operator Candy Gangelin and lion-tamer Otto to kidnap and ship out scientists.
In the next volume, The Saint vs. the Triangle (No. 38), Simon helps Mary Green fight the villainous Hal Goss and two other criminals known as the Triangle for the secret of a gold mine which she stands to inherit from Mr. Fergus, a dying outlaw who was her grandfather's former business partner. The story takes place in Nevada.
The title of No. 39 said it all: The Saint at the Carnival of Rio. In it, Simon, Patricia and Hoppy fight a famous forger named Magorsky who has taken refuge in Brazil.
Strangely, the next novel was a return to the radio "fix-ups" of the previous period. Entitled The Saint and the Green Parakeet (No. 40), it made use of two Louis Vittes radio scripts: The Case of the Lopsided Triangle and The Case of the Indiscreet Parakeet, as well as other material, presumably borrowed from the NYH-T. In it, Simon defeats Hallister, the head of A.A.A., a Kansas City publisher of crime novels, who blackmails murderers. A green parrot named Oscar provides a vital clue.
(For the record, Dutch publisher A. W. Bruna & Zoon ended up translating the following seven French novels: Nos. 40, 42, 43, 46 to 48 and 50.)
The series then returned to the NYH-T strip for inspiration. Entitled The Saint Condemns Without Appeal, No. 41's plot featured the return of Hamilton, who uses Simon to defeat Noah S. Banson, the head of the Serpent Ring. Banson is revealed to be a foreign spy plotting to set up an enemy base near Pearl Harbor. In a somewhat unusual departure for novels of this period, the Saint actually executes the villain at the end of the story.
In the next book, The Saint Chooses a Painless Death (No. 42), Simon outwits D.F.Jakes, who first offers would-be suicidees a painless death, arranges for them to regain their taste for life, and then threatens to go though with his end of the contract unless they pay him ransom money.
Greta Morgan returned in No. 43, The Saint Hunts for the Blonde, not one of Michel-Tyl's best efforts. In this rather plodding novel, taking place in Los Angeles, Simon encounters Olga Ramos, a.k.a. Greta Morgan, and prevents her from stealing the money that Juan Lobo, a Banana Republic President, is planning to steal before his people kick him out.
In the following volume, The Saint Plays Nursemaid (No. 44), Simon foils the plans of Big Tony, a gangster who is determined to do everything in his power so that his daughter, Lizza, who is unaware of his identity, is happy.
No. 45, much to the average fan's surprise, turned out to be a straightforward translation of Charteris' own collection, The Saint in Europe.
The next book, The Saint Meets a Flying Saucer (No. 46), by contrast, was yet another uninspired NYH-T plot, in which Simon exposes the villainous Dr.Quale who has built a fake flying saucer to extort money from people who believe they have been contacted by an alien named Xot.
The series picked up again with The Saint Becomes a Pirate (No. 47), in which Greta Morgan uses a drug to brainwash the Saint, who then helps her run a pirate ring in the Atlantic. Eventually, Simon, free of the drug's influence, foils her plan to ransom Greek millionaire Kyros Chrysos.
No. 48, entitled The Saint Requests the Head, had the feel of a "fix-up", assembled by Michel-Tyl from three, previously unconnected stories. However, it was not derived from any of the radio scripts. In the first story, the Saint defeats a beauty institute scam in Hollywood. Then, he exposes a blackmailing newspaper, "Dig", and his crooked owner, Grubb. Finally, he uncovers the "head" behind all these rackets: a crooked Sacramento lawyer named Rex Ficks.
The next volume, The Saint Follows the Fashion (No. 49), proved to be one of Michel-Tyl's best efforts during this period. In it, Simon defeats a fashion designer, Valentine, who uses hi-fi equipment to simulate an enemy air attack over London in order to stage a giant burglary. The plot is almost science-fiction. The novel also introduced the only other returning "companion" -- excluding the Charteris-created regulars, such as Patricia Holm, Hoppy Uniatz, etc. -- Joelle Darcenay, a French journalist. Miss Darcenay made a reappearance in No. 53, and considering her considerable charm and spunk, it is a shame that she was not chosen to appear more often in the series.
The next book, entitled First Prize for the Saint (No. 50), was a clever yarn in which Simon defeats New York forger Spats Lieber who plans to use a phony game show to launder fake US bonds, with the unwitting complicity of actor/host Tag Tower.
It was followed by yet one more straightforward translation of a Charteris' short story collection: The Saint on the Spanish Main.
No. 52, entitled I Accuse the Saint, was likely a "fix-up" created out of two stories which just happened to both take place in California. In the first, taking place in San Francisco, the Saint fights a racket preying on Chinese families. Then, the action moves to Hollywood, where Simon outwits movie producer Joe Nemo, who tries to frame him in a diamond robbery case. Naturally, Nemo turns out to have been behind the Chinese racket as well.
Joelle Darcenay returned to help Simon do battle with no less than Greta Morgan once again in No. 53, Greta Wraps up The Saint. In this rather disjointed effort (another "fix-up"?), Simon follows Greta's trail to France, and then to North Africa, where he ends up leading a slave rebellion against Greta and her allies, gun merchant Horace Dumet and the evil Ivanoff.
The title of the next novel translates as Stronger than the Saint (No. 54), but it is a version of Bet on the Saint. This is not a translation of the Fleming Lee version as Lee had not met Leslie in 1958. The stories are the same because they share the same source material, i.e.: a Herald-Tribune comic strip. Michel-Tyl novelized the French version while Lee produced an English language version some years later. The background of the Charteris/Lee collaboration on Bet on the Saint is covered in Burl Barer's book (pages 171-176). This French version is therefore the only published version of this source story.
Bet on the Saint was followed by Hurrah for the Saint (No. 55), a very odd book which read like a quickly-assembled "fix-up" of two stories. In its first part, Simon fights New York crime "bourgeois" Leo Garmish and his lieutenant Halber over the murder of a journalist. The character of Midnight, an enigmatic female antagonist, is introduced. At the end of part one of the book, Michel-Tyl then inserted a note to tell his readers that the events from Nos. 53 and 54 took place here and prevented Simon from completely wrapping up the case, i.e.: putting Leo out of commission. In part two, the action then moves to the French Riviera, where Simon, disguised as a Maharajah, foils Garmish's attempt to rob a Casino. Midnight, too, is back, but she is finally revealed to have been working for Fernack all the time.
Hamilton returned in No. 56, The Spectre of the Saint, in which he employs Simon to unmasks a California spy ring led by Raab, Dancey and Hilda Shane. The three villains throw the Saint into the Pacific Ocean, but he escapes drowning and pretends to be dead. He then returns to spook them up into surrendering.
This book was followed by a translation of Charteris' 1956 collection, The Saint Around The World (released in France in 1959).
For reasons discussed in our next chapter, the quality and interest of the French pastiches then went up markedly, with some of the most interesting books published later in the series.
4. The "comic stories" - second period (1959-1963)
As we said, the quality and interest of the French pastiches went up markedly in 1959, with some of the most interesting books published later in the series.
Certainly, Leslie Charteris' further and continued intervention may have been one of the reasons. Another is the possible intervention of renowned science fiction writer Harry Harrison who claims to have been involved with the New York Herald-Tribune strips during the years 1955-1961. This is what Mr. Harrison said in an interview:
"I was writing book reviews for The Saint Magazine under Leslie Charteris' name for a small amount of money. I got to do it through a friend of mine, Hans Stefan Santesson, an author who edited Fantastic Universe. Leslie Charteris was doing a comic strip of The Saint and I had comics experience, so I did some outlines and he liked them, and I started working with him doing the comic strips. The scripts were very long, about three months of daily comic, and a number of these were taken by a girl in Paris [Madeleine Michel-Tyl] who wrote them up as novels... [Interviewer's question: She ghosted Saint novels?] From my ghosted comic scripts! There are more Saint books in France than there are in America, so a number of my scripts appeared in France as novels, but never in the States. One of the reasons the strip was killed was because the stories were so long - there should only be three or four weeks in a series for people's attention span. These were three months long - the girl could eventually write a novel from them. So eventually the strip was killed. At that time I had one or two outlines that I had done for comic strips, and I went to see Leslie and he said would you like to expand this into a novel?"
... and Mr. Harrison then goes on describe how he wrote Vendetta for the Saint (1964).
Meanwhile, No. 58, entitled The Saint and the Tyrant, took place in the fictional South American republic of Escudia (Escoria in the NYH-T strip), where Simon helps rebel leader Dr. Cortes overthrow the local tyrant, Borgaz, and his accomplice, Valdinez.
The next volume, Hell Awaits the Saint (No. 59), turned out to be a thrilling pseudo-SF horror story taking place in Haiti. There, Simon defeats a mad scientist, Dr. Zoran, whose rejuvenating machine produces brainless zombies. The descriptions of Zoran's underground citadel are particularly colorful. Hell Awaits the Saint was definitely one of the most exciting books of this period.
Another very good novel immediately followed, which also made use of a pseudo-SF device. In The Saint vs. the Grey Hoods (No. 60), Simon fights the evil Colonel Graw, ring leader of a paramilitary gang of thieves, the Grey Hoods (the Gray Ghosts in the NYH-T strip), who use infra-red glasses to commit burglaries during foggy British nights. It was a properly moody, violent book, yet with all the wry humor associated with the Saint.
Next came The Saint in Paris (No. 61), in which Simon fights the villainous Russian spymaster Varon to save a beautiful French scientist, Marie Latour. France's answer to Teal, and Simon's French nemesis, the hound-like Inspector Quercy, is featured in this novel.
In No. 62, Let's Sacrifice the Saint, Simon is hired by the Gem Merchants Protective Association to thwart the goals of Inga Rolf, a.k.a. Greta Morgan, and her accomplice, Toff Lyken, who have located a lost Inca tribe in Amazonia, and are using local superstitions to steal their treasure of precious emeralds.
The series continued with Thanks to the Saint, a translation of Charteris' 1957 collection (released in France in 1960). The next novel, No. 64, the title of which translates as The Saint Lies In Wait, had as interesting a story as Bet on the Saint. It is, in fact, an alternate version of another Charteris/Fleming Lee collaboration, published in English as The Saint in Pursuit. The story behind this novel is told in Barer's book (pages 175-176). Its plot has Simon travelling from Lisbon to Switzerland to help young Vicky Kinian claim her late father's inheritance (he was an OSS agent). The villain is a murderous Russian spy named Uzdanov. A French motion picture with the same title was released by Intermondie in 1966, bearing little if any resemblance to the book, even though it purported to adapt it. Barer describes the various legal battles which ensued between Charteris and the producers (pages 136-138).
No. 65, entitled The Saint in the Water, moved the action to the Bahamas. In it, Simon fights two villains, Garwell and Luzik, to help his friend Dan Morrow find an underwater treasure.
Then, we were back in England in The Saint Behind the Wheel (No. 66), where the Saint takes part in a cross-country race to protect young automobile engineer Ian Foyle and his fiancée Margaret from the evil schemes of her cousin Charles.
A straightforward translation of Señor Saint, entitled No Holidays for the Saint (No. 67), followed, and then Fayard released one of Michel-Tyl's best efforts, The Saint in Sleeping Beauty's Castle (No.68).
This book takes place in the South of France, which is portrayed witch such charm and local color that one suspects that Leslie Charteris himself had more than a passing involvement in it. Indeed, Mrs. Charteris confirmed that the castle in which the story takes place was inspired by a real castle that she and her husband saw on several of their trips to the South of France. The plot is extremely clever. Simon faces Sir Charles, a British nobleman who has kept his niece, Wendy, living in a fairy tale castle, Château Sorcelou, all her life so that he can have her committed when she turns eighteen, and keep her considerable inheritance for himself. Needless to say, Simon inadvertently uncovers the scheme and breaks into the castle. Wendy, who is now a budding young woman, sees in him the Prince Charming of the stories which are, to her, reality. The Saint in Sleeping Beauty's Castle is a wonderfully written novel, charming, whimsical and yet deadly serious at the same time. It is a high point in the series, a tribute to the excellent collaboration between Charteris and Madeleine Michel-Tyl.
Fayard followed with The Trumps of the Saint (No. 69, 1962), an original collection gathering more stories which had not been previously collected in The Saint Has Fun (No. 24). Why it took Fayard six years to collect these remains a mystery. The Trumps of the Saint contains one story from The Brighter Buccaneer (The Unpopular Landlord), seven stories from The Saint Intervenes and two stories from The Happy Highwayman. As indicated above, some stories still remained untranslated, and would finally be used almost at the very end of the series, in No. 76.
This was the point in the series when Fayard was finally able to acquire the rights to the two seminal Saint novels, Meet the Tiger! and The Last Hero, which had been, until then, Gallimard's property. These two were now released, respectively as No. 70 (Meet the Tiger! being rechristened The Saint and Patricia) and No. 72.
The departure in style was rather abrupt, since in these two books, Simon is portrayed as a youthful adventurer. The novels also clearly take place before the war. On the other hand, in her more recent efforts, Madeleine Michel-Tyl had carefully aged Simon, so that he had become a more mature hero -- not unlike the Roger Moore character in the television series, which was posterior to Michel-Tyl's novelisations. And, of course, the plots took place in a contemporary setting. The absence of specific notes to the reader that should have indicated that these were early Saint adventures -- a definite Fayard editorial lapse -- meant that one had to rely on internal clues and knowledge of the earlier books in the series to make sense of their place in the Saint chronology.
In between these two "classics", Fayard sandwiched yet another excellent Michel-Tyl's adaptation, The Saint in Mexico (No. 71), in which Hamilton sends Simon to Mexico to deal with Inky Schatz, a talented forger of fake dollars. But Schatz has associated himself with a terrific villain, El Tigre. Simon infiltrates El Tigre's gang, and eventually defeats the Mexican bandit and brings Schatz back to the U.S. The Saint in Mexico is a terrific thriller.
It was followed by The Saint in Africa (No. 73). The action took place in the fictional African republic of Kanaba, where Simon defeats Dr. Bogan and his henchman Weedy to help a missionary, Dr. Grey. It turns out that Bogan seeks the secret of a miracle drug, known only to the local tribe, the Zikus. Not unsurprisingly, Simon eventually becomes the new chief of the Ziskus.
The next volume in the series, No. 74, was yet one more translation of a Charteris' short story collection, this time The Saint to the Rescue. It was followed by the last of the Michel-Tyl's pastiches, appropriately entitled The Saint Meets Greta Again (No. 75) -- and one could have added, for the last time. This somewhat melancolic, but otherwise excellent, novel took place again on the French Riviera. This time, Simon thwarts a new plot by Greta Morgan, who steals famous paintings and threatens to destroy them unless insurance companies pay her ransom money. Even though Simon eventually outwits Greta, this is the closest he has ever come to feel more than a passing fancy for her. And when the two enemies part, there is a genuine sense of sadness.
The Saint Meets Greta Again, released in December 1963, marked the creative end of the Fayard Saint series and of the Charteris-Michel-Tyl collaboration. From several books a year, the rhythm of publication now fell to two, then one. The reasons for this decline are unclear, as the popularity of the Saint, boosted by the television series, was on the rise again. Certainly, Fayard actively marketed its considerable backlist during the next six years. But no more pastiches were published, and the series itself, as we shall see, was soon discontinued.
5. The end (1964-1966)
No. 76 in the series, Again the Saint!, released in June 1964, was the third, and last, original collection put together by Fayard from the remaining untranslated short stories from The Brightest Buccaneer which had not been previously used in The Saint Has Fun (No. 24) and The Trumps of the Saint (No. 69).
In October 1964, Fayard released a translation of Trust the Saint (No. 77) and, in January 1966, after skipping an entire year, an heretofore unpecedented event, The Saint in the Sun, No. 78 and last in the series. As I said above, the reasons for the cancellation of the series remain somewhat mysterious. Certainly, the year 1968 was, as everyone knows, a year of turmoil and changes.
Paperbacks became slicker, with more lurid covers on the outside and more sexy scenes inside. It is possible that, compared to some of its more daring competition, the Saint novels may just have felt too outdated.
Also, 1968 heralded a period of economic difficulties, especially for smaller companies. A very likely possibility is that Fayard was no longer as profitable as it had once been. It may have been purchased by a larger corporation. There may have been changes in management. Jenny Bradley's 1969 letter indicates that, aside from Madeleine Michel-Tyl, there was Mr. Didelot and another, unidentified editor, which all had to be paid from the same royalties -- in other words, the series had become "top heavy". All sorts of factors that might have doomed the Saint series.
5b. Uncollected stories
Vendetta for the Saint (by Harry Harrison and Leslie Charteris), which had first appeared in Le Saint Detective Magazine No. 130 (December 1965) and five subsequent issues, was again serialized in 1967 and 1968 in Télé 7 Jours, the largest French television programme magazine. Considering the popularity of the television series, it would have been a simple matter for Fayard, or even another publisher, to put it out in book form. Yet, it was not done. Another letter from Jenny Bradley revealed that the sale of the subsidiary rights by Fayard to Télé 7 Jours was mismanaged by Fayard.
For the sake of exhaustivity let us also note here that four original short stories initially published in Le Saint Detective Magazine were never collected in the Fayard books:
- Le Noble Sportsman (The Noble Sportsman) in Le Saint Detective Magazine No. 24 (Febr. 1957);
- Le Saint et les Prospecteurs (The Saint and the Prospectors) in Le Saint Detective Magazine No. 112 (June 1964) was adapted by M. Michel-Tyl from a NY Herald Tribune strip (September 13th- November 6th, 1954). In it, Bruce Taylor, a Hollywood writer, buys the rights to adapt the tall tales stories that an old prospector/gold miner Old Man Gibbs likes to tell.
- Amours, Gadgets et Colonel (Love, Gadgets and Colonel) (The Gadget Lovers) from Le Saint Detective Magazine No. 151-152 (Sept.-Oct. 1967), the adaptation by Fleming Lee of a John Kruse teleplay, translated by M. Michel-Tyl, later included in The Saint Returns.
- Un Puissant Artiste (The Power Artist), written with Fleming Lee, in Le Saint Detective Magazine No. 153-154 (Nov.-Dec 1967) was, however, later included in the 1980 Livre de Poche volume Le Saint à la Télévision (1980) (The Saint on TV) but in a different translation.
For a gallery of all the covers of Le Saint Detective Magazine, click here.
Finally, as we pointed out before, one original Leslie charteris story, The Uncritical Publisher (from The Saint Intervenes) was not translated at all, although there is an orginal 1945 French-Canadian translation of that collection entitled Le Saint intervient (published by Editions Modernes Ltée.) and it is likely that that story is included there, but translated by Madeleine Didayer.
Within the space of a couple of years, certainly by 1970, even the colorful Fayard books had vanished from the newstands. It was as if the Saint had died. Gone. Vanished.
Soon after the publication of the last Fayard Saint book, the popular reprint collection Le Livre de Poche began reissuing virtually all of the Saint novels, starting in 1967 with The Saint in New York (No. 1) and ending up with The Saint Plays Nursemaid (No. 44) in 1978.
For a gallery of the covers of all the Livre de Poche editions, click here.
Le Livre de Poche also issued four Charteris "collaborations": The Saint and the Hapsburg Necklace by Christopher Short in 1977, The Saint and the Forgers (Catch the Saint) by Fleming Lee & Norman Worker and The Saint on TV by Fleming Lee & John Kruse in 1980, and finally, The Saint Gets Angry (The Saint in Trouble) by Graham Weaver, John Kruse & Terence Feely in 1981.
Interestingly, Jenny Bradley had stated in a 1973 letter that she had been preparing contracts for Fayard editions of The Saint and the Fiction Makers by Fleming Lee and John Kruse, The Saint Abroad by Fleming Lee and Michael Pertwee and The Saint and the People Importers by Fleming Lee and Leslie Charteris. However, these books were never published. Undoubtedly, the Fall of the House of Fayard was responsible.
In any event, sometime in the mid-1980s, the Livre de Poche editions, too, were allowed to become out of print.
For the record, the following other Saint novels were not translated either:
- The Saint in Pursuit (a Fleming Lee/Charteris collaboration), in its original form;
- The Saint Returns (by Fleming Lee, D. R. Motton, Leigh Vance and John Kruse) (except for one story, The Gadget Lovers, published in a translation by M. Michel-Tyl in Le Saint Detective Magazine Nos. 151-152);
- Send for the Saint (by Peter Bloxsom, John Kruse and Donald James);
- The Saint and the Templar Treasure (by Graham Weaver and Donne Avenell);
- Count on the Saint (by Graham Weaver and Donne Avenell); and
- Salvage for the Saint (by Peter Bloxsom and John Kruse).
In 1989, 10/18, an upscale "classic mysteries" paperback series put out by editors Christian Bourgois and Jean-Claude Zylberstein at the Presses de la Cité, reprinted three Saint books. They were: The Saint in New York (No. 1), The Saint versus Scotland Yard (No. 7) and Thieves' Picnic (No. 10). According to Mr. Zylberstein, these were not very successful, and no further reprints are planned.
In the mid-1990s, Belgian publisher Claude Lefrancq began publishing a new series of Saint reprints in two different imprints: one was omnibus volumes featuring several novels; the other was straightforward reprint of the Fayard volumes, featuring the original cover art, framed by a giant Saint signature. They reprinted Nos. 2, 3, 72 (The Last Hero), 6 and 11 of the Fayard series.
Lefrancq went out of business in 1998 and this reprint series, too, was eventually terminated.
In 1997/98, another French publisher, Librio, reprinted stand-alone Charteris short stories in slim, inexpensive volumes: LE SAINT: EN PETITES COUPURES; LE SAINT: IMPOT SUR LE CRIME; LE SAINT: PAR ICI LA MONNAIE!; LE SAINT ENTRE EN SCENE and UNE AVENTURE DU SAINT: LE POLICIER FANTÔME.
A French translation of the novelization of the Val Kilmer movie by Burl Barer was published in 1999 to coincide with the release of the movie.
I began this article by stating that there was remarkably little information about the French Saint series, even in France, and whatever information had trickled back to England or America had conveyed the impression that these books were not good.
Even the most comprehensive Saint bibliographies, which list novelisations of television stories over which Charteris had little control, or Burl Barer's wonderful posthumous pastiche, ignore the forty-four French Saint novels, all credited to Charteris.
Yet, two of these include direct translations of the legendary Charteris/Fleming Lee collaborations (Nos. 54 & 64).
Nine were based on radio scripts over which Charteris also had little control -- these are the ones which, after being translated back into English, conveyed a negative impression. Yet, these are hardly better or worse than the Bloxsom or Kruse novelisations, which still appear in Charteris bibliographies.
Finally, a whopping 33 novels were based on Charteris plots, incorporated (in translation) Charteris dialogue drawn from the Charteris-written New York Herald-Tribune strip. These cannot but be considered full-blown Charteris collaborations.
It is worth noting that the French Saint books were successfully translated in Dutch for many years, and that French Saint cover artist Regino Bernad went on to design the covers of an early German edition as well, two more tributes to the lasting influence of the Fayard edition in Continental Europe.
How long will these books continue to be ignored because bibliographers don't care, or only read English?
I may not have answered all the questions which remain, but if nothing else, I hope to have contributed to dispel this bit of "English Spoken Only" prejudice and restore into the Charteris canon this enormous and heretofore uncovered contribution.
Certainly, from both a quantitative and qualitative standpoint, Edmond and especially Madeleine Michel-Tyl's collaborative work deserves much recognition among Saint fans.
Appendix 1: Other Fayard Imprints
The success of the Saint books even encouraged Fayard in 1948 to start publishing French editions of the Nero Wolfe (a.k.a. "L'Homme aux Orchidées" -- The Orchid Man) novels by Rex Stout, and John Creasey's The Toff, rechristened The Prince. Before the war, Fayard had also published five New Adventures of Raffles by Barry Perown. Later, in the 1950s, they would release a French edition of The Saint Detective Magazine as well. They also published three new Fantômas books by Marcel Allain.
It is interesting to observe that Fayard deliberately copied the design of its famous Saint covers, using the haloed stick figure designed and trademarked by Leslie Charteris, in order to attract readers to its other series: the Nero Wolfe covers featured a rotund, orchid-bearing, stick figure, while those of the Prince bore a top-hat-wearing, monocled one. Considering Charteris' well-documented attempts to protect his trademark, it is remarkable that no attempts were made to stop Fayard from doing this.
In any event, and in spite of this clever bit of cover design, the Nero Wolfe and Prince series failed to attract the same, huge following than that of the Saint books. They were abandoned in 1950, after more than twenty Nero Wolfes and fourteen Princes had been published. (It is also possible that Fayard simply lost the rights to publish them.)
Meanwhile, Fayard, having by then run out of original Leslie Charteris' Saint stories, embarked on an aggressive program to manufacture their own. From then on, the Saint would become, and remain until its own discontinuation in 1966, Fayard's premier crime/adventure series.
Appendix 2: Bibliography
Number in the Fayard "Saint" series. French Title (Date of first French publication) (English translation of French title) (Original title(s) if/when different) (French reprints - LDP = Livre de Poche).
Short Story Titles (if collection) (English translation of French title) (Original title if/when different) (LSDM = Le Saint Detective Magazine followed by the issue number in which the story appeared)
(Plot summary (for "French" novels only))
1. Le Saint à New York (1938) (The Saint in New York) (rep. LDP 2190, 1967; rep. 10/18 No. 2059, 1989).
2. L'Héroïque Aventure (1938) (The Heroic Adventure) (Knight Templar/The Avenging Saint) (rep. LDP 2746, 1970).
(Reprinted in Omnibus No. 1)
3. Les Anges des Ténèbres (1938) (The Angels of Darkness) (The Saint Meets His Match/Angels of Doom/She Was a Lady) (rep. LDP 3121, 1971).
4. La Justice du Saint (1938) (The Saint's Justice) (Saint Overboard/The Pirate Saint) (rep. LDP 2610, 1969; also serialized in the magazine Story Nos. 281 seq., 1950-51).
5. Le Saint et les Mauvais Garçons (1939) (The Saint and The Bad Boys) (Alias the Saint) (rep. LDP 2393, 1969).
Le Dragon de Bronze (The Brass Dragon) (The Impossible Crime)
L'Auberge Mystérieuse aka L'Auberge des Mauvais Garçons (The Mysterious Inn) (The National Debt) (LSDM #92)
Le Mort Vivant (The Living Dead) (The Story of a Dead Man)
(Reprinted in Omnibus No. 4)
6. Le Saint et l'Archiduc (1939) (The Saint and the Archduke) (Getaway) (rep. LDP 2376, 1968).
(Reprinted in Omnibus No. 1)
7. Le Saint à Londres (1939) (The Saint in London) (The Saint versus Scotland Yard/The Holy Terror) (rep. LDP 2436, 1968; rep. 10/18 No. 2058, 1989).
Sommation sans frais (Injunction Without Costs) (The Inland Revenue) (LSDM #82)
Un Million de Livres (A Million Pounds) (The Million Pound Day) (LSDM #90)
Le Mélancolique Voyage de l'Inspecteur Teal (The Melancholic Journey of Inspector Teal) (The Melancholy Journey of Mr. Teal) (LSDM #80)
(Reprinted in Omnibus No. 5)
8. Ici le Saint! (1939) (The Saint Here!) (Once More the Saint/The Saint & Mr. Teal) (rep. LDP 3156, 1971).
L'Homme qui pouvait faire de l'or (The Man Who Could Make Gold) (The Gold Standard) (First published by Editions Ferenczi in Crime & Police No. 30, 1933; then rep. by Editions Ferenczi in Le Verrou No. 9, 1950, under the title Le Secret du Prof. Quell (The Secret of Prof. Quell)) (LSDM #140-141)
Galbraith Stride fut pendu (Galbraith Stride Was Hung) (The Death Penalty) (rep. by Editions Ferenczi in Le Verrou No. 5, 1950 under the title La Tragédie du Louxor (The Luxor Tragedy)). (LSDM #142-143)
(Also see No.9.)
(Reprinted in Omnibus No. 4)
9. Les Compagnons du Saint (1940) (The Saint's Companions) (Once More the Saint/The Saint & Mr. Teal) & (Enter the Saint) (rep. LDP 3211, 1971).
Patricia Holm (The Man from St. Louis) (rep. by Editions Ferenczi in Le Verrou No. 1, 1950 under the title L'Homme de Saint-Louis (The Man from St. Louis)).
Roger Conway (The Policeman with Wings) (LSDM #73)
Dicky Tremayne (The Lawless Lady) (LSDM #68)
(Also see Nos.8 & 18.)
(Reprinted in Omnibus No. 2)
10. Le Saint à Ténériffe (1940) (The Saint in Teneriffe) (The Saint Bids Diamonds/Thieves' Picnic) (rep. LDP, 1970; rep. 10/18 No. 2060, 1989).
(Reprinted in Omnibus No. 2)
11. Le Saint Contre Teal (1941) (The Saint vs. Teal) (The Misfortunes of Mr.Teal/The Saint in London/The Saint in England) (rep. LDP 3255, 1971).
Le Saint, Hoppy et le Livre Noir (The Saint, Hoppy and the Black Book) (The Simon Templar Foundation) (LSDM #96)
L'Homme qui était mort (The Man Who Was Dead) (The Higher Finance) (LSDM #87)
Simon Templar contre le Saint (Simon Templar vs. the Saint) (The Art of Alibi) (LSDM #72)
(Reprinted in Omnibus No. 5)
12. En Suivant le Saint (1941) (Follow the Saint) (rep. LDP 3390, 1972).
Le Thé Miracle (The Miracle Tea) (The Miracle Tea Party) (LSDM #94)
Le Millionaire Invisible (The Invisible Millionaire) (LSDM #97)
L'Honorable M. Hogsbotham (The Hon. Mr. Hogsbotham) (The Affair of Hogsbotham) (LSDM #74)
(Reprinted in Omnibus No. 6)
13. Le Saint s'en va t-en guerre (1945) (The Saint Goes To War) (Featuring the Saint) & (The Saint Goes On) (rep. LDP 3318, 1972).
Le Saint s'en va t-en guerre (The Saint Goes To War) (The Wonderful War) (LSDM #95)
Le Grand Fourgue (The High Fence) (LSDM #84)
L'Auberge Mystérieuse (The Mysterious Inn) (Not to be confused with No.5) (The Case of the Frightened Innkeeper) (LSDM #86)
(Also see Nos.18 & 22.)
(Reprinted in Omnibus No. 5)
14. Le Saint contre le Marché Noir (1946) (The Saint vs. The Black Market) (The Saint on Guard) (rep. LDP 3415, 1972).
Le Saint contre le Marché Noir (The Black Market) (LSDM #136-137)
Le Saboteur Grillé (The Sizzling Saboteur) (LSDM #138-139)
(Reprinted in Omnibus No. 8)
15. Le Saint Joue... et Gagne (1946) (The Saint Plays... And Wins) (The Saint Plays With Fire/Prelude for War) (rep. LDP 3463, 1973).
(Reprinted in Omnibus No. 6)
16. Le Saint contre Mr. Z... (1946) (The Saint vs. Mr. Z...) (The Saint in Action/The Ace of Knaves) (rep. LDP 3348, 1972).
Le Saint contre Mr. Z... (The Saint vs. Mr. Z...) (The Beauty Specialist) (LSDM #78)
L'Aventure Espagnole (The Spanish Adventure) (The Spanish War) (LSDM #93)
La Jeune Fille Blonde (The Young Blonde Girl) (The Unlicensed Victuallers) (LSDM #76)
(Reprinted in Omnibus No. 6)
17. Le Saint à Miami (1947) (The Saint in Miami) (rep. LDP 4740, 1976).
(Reprinted in Omnibus No. 7)
18. La Marque du Saint (1947) (The Mark of the Saint) (Enter the Saint) & (Featuring the Saint) (rep. LDP 3287, 1972).
Lasserre & Co, Regent Street (The Man Who Was Clever) (LSDM #98)
Le Saint contre Francis Lemuel (The Saint vs. Francis Lemuel) (The Logical Adventure) (LSDM #91)
L'Homme qui ne pouvait pas mourir (The Man Who Could Not Die) (LSDM #88)
(Also see Nos.9 & 13.)
(Reprinted in Omnibus No. 2)
19. Mais le Saint troubla la fête (1947) (But the Saint Disturbed the Party) (The Saint Steps In) (rep. LDP 3505, 1973).
(Reprinted in Omnibus No. 7)
20. Le Saint au Far West (1947) (The Saint in the Far West) (The Saint Goes West) (rep. LDP 3553, 1973).
Le Saint au Far West (Arizona) (LSDM #106)
Le Saint à Hollywood (Hollywood) (LSDM #127-128)
(Also see No.22.)
(Reprinted in Omnibus No. 7)
21. Le Saint, Cookie et Cie. (1948) (The Saint, Cookie & Co.) (The Saint Sees It Through) (rep. LDP 3582, 1973).
(Reprinted in Omnibus No. 8)
22. Le Saint conduit le Bal (1948) (The Saint Leads the Dance) (The Saint Goes On) & (The Saint Goes West) (rep. LDP 3612, 1973).
L'insaisissable Mr. Ellshaw (The Elusive Ellshaw) (LSDM #100)
Le Saint à Palm Springs (Palm Springs)
(Also see Nos.13 & 20.)
(Reprinted in Omnibus No. 8)
23. On Demande le Saint (1948) (Call for the Saint) (rep. LDP 3644, 1973).
L'Ange Masqué (The Masked Angel) (LSDM #124-125)
Le Roi des Mendiants (The King of Beggars) (LSDM #120-121)
24. Le Saint s'amuse (1949) (The Saint Has Fun) (rep. LDP 3660, 1973).
From The Brightest Buccaneer:
La Croisière de la Christabel (The Christabel Cruise) (The Unblemished Bootlegger) (LSDM #37)
Le Saint et l'Usurier (The Saint and the Usurer) (The Perfect Crime) (LSDM #44)
From The Saint Intervenes:
Le Saint et le Financier (The Financier) (The Unfortunate Financier) (LSDM #46)
Le Saint et le Colonel (The Colonel) (The Ingenuous Colonel) (LSDM #38)
Le Saint joue et perd (The Saint Plays and Loses) (The Treasure of Turk's Lane) (LSDM #50)
L'Homme aux Jouets (The Toy Man) (The Man Who Liked Toys) (LSDM #60)
La Couronne de Tcherkassie (The Crown of Tcherkassia) (The Prince of Tcherkessia) (LSDM #70)
(The Uncritical Publisher and The Noble Sportsman were not included.)
From The Happy Highwayman:
Le Saint et la Comtesse (The Countess) (The Charitable Countess) (LSDM #48)
Le Testament (The Testament) (The Wicked Cousin) (LSDM #52)
Le Saint et les Faiseurs d'Etoiles (The Star Makers) (The Star Producers) (LSDM #54)
Le Saint et le Nouveau Riche (The Benevolent Burglary) (LSDM #56)
Les Lunettes du Saint (The Saint's Glasses) (The Mug's Game) (LSDM #57)
Le Saint et le Profiteur (The Profiteer) (The Well-Meaning Mayor) (LSDM #41)
Le Saint et les Fourmis (The Ants) (The Man Who Liked Ants) (LSDM #71)
(Also see Nos.69 & 76.)
25. Le Saint et les Femmes (1949) (The Saint and Women) (Saint Errant) (rep. LDP 3870, 1974).
Iris (The Old Routine) (LSDM #42)
Lida (The Foolish Frail) (LSDM #45) (also published in Mystère Magazine No. 26, 1950, under the title Une Soirée au Club Nautique (An Evening at the Boat Club).)
Judith (The Naughty Niece) (LSDM #40)
Jeannine (The Lovely Sinner) (LASDM #47)
Lucia (The Homecoming of Amadeo Urselli) (LSDM #49)
Teresa (The Uncertain Widow) (LSDM #51)
Luella (The Saint and the Double Badger) (LSDM #53)
Aurore (Dawn) (The Darker Drink) (LASDM #55)
Emily (The Doodlebug) (also published in Mystère Magazine No. 40, 1951, under the title Le Saint a le filon (The Saint Finds The Gold).)
26. Quand le Saint s'en mêle (1950) (When the Saint Meddles) (rep. LDP 3895, 1974).
De Soja à Textile (From Soja to Textile) (source unknown) (Simon exposes Lyman, a killer who uses an ultrasound musical instrument to commit murder.) (LSDM #113)
Au Bord de la tombe (On the Edge of the Grave) (adapted from the Radio Script The Man Who Sang by Maurice Zimm) (Simon helps Fernack arrest gangster Dixon who had secretly killed his associate, Blakely, who had stolen a fortune in US Bonds.) (LSDM #104)
La Tête de la Poupée (The Doll's Head) (adapted from the Radio Script Doll with a Broken Head by Les Cratchfield) (Simon finds a Chinese emerald hidden inside a doll.) (LSDM #102)
27. La Loi du Saint (1951) (The Saint's Law) (rep. LDP 3945, 1974).
Le Casier à Bouteilles (The Wine Bottle Rack) (adapted from the radio script Family Gun Play by Michael Cramoy) (Simon exposes the murders of Judge Beaumont, who had hidden the corpse of his last victim in his wine cellar.) (LSDM #108)
Le Carillon (The Bells) (adapted from the radio script Rare Painting Smugglers by Michael Cramoy) (Simon defeats Nader, who had killed Kell and Farnear, his partners in an art smuggling ring.) (LSDM #115)
Le Tapis Philippin (The Filipino Carpet) (adapted from the radio script Murder for a Buried Treasure by Michael Cramoy) (Simon helps Filipino agent Escobar recover a precious carpet from murderous antique dealer Mrs. Akins.) (LSDM #116)
28. Le Saint ramène un Héritier (1952) (The Saint Brings Back an Heir) (rep. LDP 3836, 1973).
Three interconnected stories:
Une Mission du Saint (The Saint's Mission) (possibly adapted from the radio script Murder on the High Seas by Michael Cramoy?) (Hamilton asks Simon to bring back from India the heir to an enormous forture, one Bodhan Kupchinsky, who turns out to be an old scientist. On board the return ship, Simon foils a plot by Nadia to kill Bodhan and take his place.) (LSDM #118)
Le Train des Lions (The Lions Train) (adapted from the radio script Baseball Train Shooting by Michael Cramoy) (Simon and Kupchinsky cross America in a train carrying the Lions Baseball team. Simon unmasks a murderer, banker Whitt.) (LSDM #110)
King Olsen (King Olsen) (adapted from the radio script The Steel Ice Murders by Sidney Marshall) (Back in New York, Simon solves the murder of the King of Ball Bearings Olsen. He finds a diamond hidden in a ball bearing and arrests the murderers, Zora and Jesnick.) (LSDM #111)
29. Le Saint ne veut pas chanter (1952) (The Saint Refuses to Sing) (rep. LDP 3973, 1974).
Three interconnected stories:
1. (adapted from the radio script Baby Adoption Ring Blackmail by Ken Crossin)
2 & 3. (adapted from the radio script Blackmail by Michael Cramoy)
(Simon is framed for murder in connection with a baby adoption center called Sanctuary. He then helps actress Diane Lamour recover her stolen jewels and defeat a blackmailer, the "Stitcher" who threatens to ruin her beauty. Finally, he fights Culver, a crooked magician, and eventually exposes meek banker Bill Anderson as the ring leader of a nationwide gang of blackmailers.)
30. Le Saint et le Canard Boiteux (1953) (The Saint and the Lame Duck) (rep. LDP 4023, 1974).
Three interconnected stories:
1. (adapted from the radio script The Disappearing Dentist by Michael Cramoy)
2. (adapted from the radio script Tiger by the Tail by Howard Dimsdale)
3. (adapted from the radio script Night Club Story by Margolis & Morheim)
(Marty Kane, manager of a New York night club, The Lame Duck, sends Simon to dentist Dr. Gilbert, which puts him on the trail of missing killer Dutch Foster who has found refuge in a circus.)
31. Le Saint et la Veuve Noire (1953) (The Saint and the Black Widow) (rep. LDP 4118, 1975).
Three interconnected stories:
1. (adapted from the radio script Hard Money by Michael Cramoy)
2. (adapted from the radio script The Latest Style in Murder by Michael Cramoy)
3. (adapted from the radio script Pearls Before Swine by Michael Cramoy)
(Simon is summoned by Marie Virva to solve the murder of her ex-husband, Paul Henley. He and Marie then run into a gang of killers led by the mysterious Black Widow, who is after Oscar Dole's pearl necklace. After helping old Mrs. Gilbert solve her butler's murder, Simon discovers that the real Black Widow was not the gang leader, Mendoza, but Marie herself.)
32. Les Anges appellent le Saint (1953) (The Angels Call For the Saint) (rep. LDP 4164, 1975).
Three interconnected stories:
1. (adapted from the radio script Playing with Fire by Howard Dimsdale)
2. (adapted from the radio script The Fence by Howard Dimsdale)
3. (adapted from the radio script Crime Wave by Howard Dimsdale)
(In Los Angeles, Simon fights Dr. Williams and a gang of criminals. He then join forces with trucker Falstaff to defeat Louie's fencing operation. Finally, he exposes the ringleader, Armstrong, the director of a Youth Organization called the Angels, who uses children to commit crimes.)
33. Le Saint parie sur la mort (1953) (The Saint Bets on Death) (rep. LDP 4183, 1975).
Three interconnected stories:
1. (adapted from the radio script The Saint is Framed by Howard Dimsdale)
2. (adapted from the radio script The Death of a Fighter by Joel Murcott)
3. (adapted from the radio script Jailbreak by Joel Murcott)
(In New York, Simon is framed by Lorraine, the wife of gambler Tom Clark, for her husband's murder. In reality, Clark is still alive under the guise of gangster Steve Masco. The Saint also becomes involved with a crooked fight, and escaped convict Savadel who is looking for revenge.)
34. Le Saint refuse une Couronne (1954) (The Saint Refuses a Crown) (NYH-T) (rep. LDP 4208, 1975).
(Simon helps Elaine Valdor, heir to the Roldavian throne, to defeat Prince Hugo and financier Lord Bullfish, and regain her throne. He turns down her offer to become her consort.)
(In the original NYH-T strip, Roldavia is called Valdor.)
35. Le Saint se bat contre un Fantôme (1954) (The Saint Battles a Phantom) (The Saint Meets a Ghost?) (rep. LDP 4188, 1976).
Three interconnected stories:
1. (adapted from the radio script With No Tomorrow by Ken Crossen)
2. (source unknown?)
3. (adapted from the radio script The Case of the Unkindest Cut by Louis Vittes)
(Drug kingpin Warner Wilson uses the Saint to eliminate his four partners: Lane, Becker, Harlan and Henley, so that all the profits from their traffic will remain his alone. The plot revolves around the Crestview medical facility and Lane's use of Chinese coffins to smuggle drugs.)
36. Le Saint découvre le Virus 13 (1954) (The Saint Discovers Virus 13) (NYH-T) (The Saint Takes Germs/Intro Greta Morgan) (rep. LDP 4715, 1976).
(The Saint fights nazi scientist Anton Morgan and his wife Greta to prevent the release of the deadly Virus 13. The Saint eventually kills Anton but Greta escapes with the money.)
37. Le Saint joue avec le feu (1954) (The Saint Plays with Fire) (NYH-T) (rep. LDP 4789, 1976).
(After four American scientists mysteriously disappear, Simon, Patricia and Hoppy discover a scheme by circus operator Candy Gangelin and lion-tamer Otto to ship out the missing scientists. The action takes place in Florida with Sheriff Haskins (from No.17) making an appearance.
(Not the same book as No.15.)
38. Le Saint contre le Triangle (1955) (The Saint vs. the Triangle) (NYH-T) (rep. LDP 4811, 1976).
(In Nevada, Simon helps Mary Green fight Hal Goss and two other criminals known as the Triangle for the secret of a gold mine she stands to inherit from Mr. Fergus, a dying outlaw and her grandfather's former partner.)
39. Le Saint au Carnaval de Rio (1955) (The Saint at the Carnival of Rio) (NYH-T) (rep. LDP 4849, 1977).
(Simon, Patricia and Hoppy fights famous forger Magorsky and his associates during the Carnival of Rio.)
40. Le Saint et le Perroquet Vert (1955) (The Saint and the Green Parakeet) (The Saint's Truth is Under Rain) (rep. LDP 4924, 1977).
Three interconnected stories:
1. (adapted from the radio script The Case of the Lopsided Triangle by Louis Vittes)
2. (source unknown?)
3. (adapted from the radio script The Case of the Indiscreet Parakeet by Louis Vittes)
(Simon defeats Hallister, the head of A.A.A., a Kansas City publisher of crime novels, who blackmails murderers -- among which Joan Brooks who is accused of having killed her husband. A green parrot named Oscar provides a vital clue.)
41. Le Saint condamne sans appel (1955) (The Saint Condemns Without Appeal) (NYH-T) (rep. LDP 5009, 1977).
(Hamilton uses Simon to defeat Noah S. Banson, the head of the Serpent ring, who is also a foreign spy who plots to set up an enemy base near Pearl Harbor.)
42. Le Saint choisit la Mort Douce (1955) (The Saint Chooses A Painless Death) (NYH-T) (rep. LDP 5042, 1978).
(Simon outwits D.F. Jakes who offers would-be suicidees a painless death, then arranges for them to regain their taste for life, then threatens to go though with his end of the contract unless they pay him ransom money.)
43. Le Saint chasse la Blonde (1956) (The Saint Hunts The Blonde) (NYH-T) (rep. LDP 5296, 1979).
(In Los Angeles, Simon encounters Olga Ramos, a.k.a. Greta Morgan, and prevents her from stealing the money that Juan Lobo, a Banana Republic President, is planning to take away before he gets overthrown by his people.)
44. Le Saint devient Nourrice Sèche (1956) (The Saint Plays Nursemaid) (NYH-T) (rep. LDP 5171, 1978).
(The Saint foils the plans of Big Tony, a gangster who is determined to do everything in his power so that his daughter, Lizza, who ignores his identity, is happy.)
45. Le Saint en Europe (1956) (The Saint in Europe).
Paris: Le Saint relève le défi (The Saint takes on the challenge) (The Covetous Headsman) (LSDM #8)
Amsterdam: L'Oeil d'Ange (The Angel's Eye) (LSDM #12)
Le Rhin: La Fille du Rhin (The Rhine Maiden) (LSDM #13)
Le Tyrol: La Merveilleuse Randonnée (The Marvellous Journey) (The Golden Journey)
Lucerne: Le Touriste Assassiné (The Murdered Tourist) (The Loaded Tourist) (LSDM #14)
Juan-les-Pins: La Vache Espagnole (The Spanish Cow)
Rome: Traduction Libre (Free Translation) (The Latin Touch) (LSDM #9)
46. Le Saint voit une Soucoupe Volante (1956) (The Saint Meets a Flying Saucer) (NYH-T).
(Simon defeats Dr. Quale who has built a fake flying saucer to extort money from people who believe they have been contacted by an alien named Xot.)
47. Le Saint devient Pirate (1956) (The Saint Becomes a Pirate) (NYH-T).
(Greta Morgan uses a drug to brainwash the Saint, who then helps her run a pirate ring in the Atlantic. Eventually free of the drug's influence, the Saint then prevents Greta from kidnapping Greek millionaire Kyros Chrysos. Greta escapes.)
48. Le Saint exige la Tête (1957) (The Saint Requests the Head) (NYH-T).
Three interconnected stories:
1. "Beauty Scam" (The Saint defeats a beauty institute scam in Hollywood.)
2. "Dig Goggles" (Simon exposes a blackmailing newspaper, "Dig", and his crooked owner, Grubb.)
3. "Rex Martin" (Simon discovers the real boss behind these rackets, a crooked Sacramento lawyer named Rex Ficks, and stops heiress Diana Wrenn from marrying him.)
49. Le Saint suit la mode (1957) (The Saint Follows The Fashion) (NYH-T).
(In England, Simon and Joelle Darcenay defeats fashion designer Valentine who uses hi-fi equipment to simulate an enemy air attack over London in order for him to stage a giant burglary.)
50. Premier Prix au Saint (1957) (First Prize for the Saint) (NYH-T).
(In New York, Simon defeats forger Spats Lieber who plans to use a phony game show to launder fake US bonds, with the unwitting complicity of actor/host Tag Tower.)
51. Le Saint aux Antilles (1957) (The Saint in the Antilles) (The Saint on the Spanish Main).
Bimini: Le Pêcheur pris à l'hameçon (The Fisherman Caught In His Own Hook) (The Effete Angler) (LSDM #23)
Nassau: La Flèche de Dieu (The Arrow of God) (also published in Mystère Magazine No. 50, 1952.)
La Jamaïque: Le Commissaire Noir (The Black Commissar) (LSDM #25)
Porto-Rico: Tristan, c'est Yseult (Tristan, It's Yseult) (The Unkind Philantropist) (LSDM #1)
Les Iles Vierges: Une Chasse au Trésor (Treasure Hunt) (The Old Treasure Story) (LSDM #7)
Haïti: J'irai à Sibao (I'll Go To Sibao) (The Questing Tycoon) (LSDM #27)
52. J'accuse le Saint (1957) (I Accuse the Saint) (NYH-T).
Two interconnected stories:
1. "Chinatown" (In San Francisco, the Saint fights a racket preying on Chinese families.)
2. "Nemo" (In Hollywood, Simon exposes the mastermind, movie producer Joe Nemo, who then tries to frame Simon in a diamond robbery case.)
53. Greta emballe le Saint (1958) (Greta Wraps Up The Saint) (NYH-T).
(Following Greta's trail, Simon travels to France where he teams up again with Joelle Darcenay (see No.49) to foil gun merchant Horace Dumet, Ivanoff and Greta Morgan's gun smuggling operations in Northern Africa. There, the Saint ends up leading a slave rebellion.)
54. Plus fort que le Saint (1958) (Stronger than the Saint) (Bet on the Saint) (not to be confused with an alternate version of the same NYH-T story by Fleming Lee).
(In Los Angeles, Prof. Pilby discovers a wonder drug endowing super strength and speed. The Saint defeats gangsters who have their own ideas for its creative use.)
55. Vive le Saint (1958) (Hurray for the Saint) (NYH-T).
Two interconnected stories:
1. (The Saint fights crime bourgeois Leo Garmish, his lieutenant Halber and the beautiful Midnight over the murder of a journalist in New York.)
2. (Simon disguised as a Maharajah, foils Garmish's attempt to steal from a Riviera Casino; Midnight is revealed to have been working for Fernack.)
(Books Nos. 53 & 54 are explicitedy said to take place between Parts 1 and 2.)
56. Le Spectre du Saint (1958) (The Saint's Spectre) (NYH-T).
(In California, Hamilton uses Simon to unmasks a foreign spy ring led by Raab, Dancey and Hilda Shane. They throw the Saint in the Ocean, but he escapes. He pretends to be dead and returns to spook them up into surrendering.)
57. Le Saint autour du monde (1959) (The Saint Around The World).
Bermudes: Un Modèle de patience (A Model of Patience) (The Patient Playboy) (LSDM #39)
Angleterre: Un Mari de Talent (The Talented Husband) (LSDM #2)
France: Chez les Nudistes (With the Nudists) (The Reluctant Nudist) (LSDM #15)
Moyen-Orient: Le Saint devient Sourcier (The Saint Becomes A Water Dowser) (The Lovelorn Sheik) (LSDM #43)
Malaisie: Une Femme Parfaite (A Perfect Woman) (The Pluperfect Lady) (LSDM #16)
Vancouver: Quand le poisson a sa chance (When The Fish Has Its Chance) (The Sporting Chance) (LSDM #10)
58. Le Saint et le Tyran (1959) (The Saint and the Tyrant) (NYH-T).
(In Escudia, Simon helps rebel leader Dr. Cortes overthrow tyrant Borgaz and his accomplice, Valdinez.)
(In the original NYH-T strip, Escudia is called Escoria.)
59. L'Enfer attend le Saint (1959) (Hell Awaits the Saint) (NYH-T).
(In Haiti, Simon defeats mad scientist Dr. Zoran whose rejuvenating machine produces brainless zombies.)
60. Le Saint contre les Cagoules Grises (1959) (The Saint vs. the Grey Hoods) (NYH-T).
(In England, Simon defeats Colonel Graw, the ringleader of a paramilitary gang of thieves, the Grey Hoods, who use infra-red glasses to commit burglaries during foggy nights.)
(In the original NYH-T strip, the Grey Hoods are called the Gray Ghosts.)
61. Le Saint à Paris (1959) (The Saint in Paris) (NYH-T).
(In Paris, Simon fights Russian spymaster Varon to save beautiful French scientist Marie Latour, while trying to avoid being arrested by Inspector Quercy.)
62. Sacrifions le Saint (1960) (Let's Sacrifice the Saint) (NYH-T).
(Simon is hired by the Gem Merchants Protective association to fight Inga Rolf, a.k.a. Greta Morgan, and Toff Lyken, who have located a lost Inca tribe in Amazonia, and use local superstitions to steal their treasure of precious emeralds.)
63. Merci, le Saint! (1960) (Thanks to the Saint).
Le Saint n'aime pas les escrocs (The Saint Does Not Like Swindlers) (The Bunco Artists) (LSDM #58)
Gibet à Louer (Gallows For Rent) (The Happy Suicide) (LSDM #59)
Un Médicament du Tonnerre (The Good Medicine) (LSDM #61)
Le Mot Accusateur (The Accusatory Word) (The Unescapable Word) (LSDM #62)
Le Gogo Ideal (The Perfect Sucker) (LSDM #63)
La Machine Infernale (The Infernal Device) (The Careful Terrorist) (LSDM #64)
64. Le Saint Prend l'Affut (1960) (The Saint Lies In Wait) (The Saint in Pursuit) (NYH-T) (with Fleming Lee).
(From Lisbon to Switzerland, Simon helps young Vicky Kinian gather her late father's inheritance (he was an OSS agent) and fights Russian spymaster Uzdanov.)
(The French motion picture "adaptation" bears no resemblance to the book.)
65. A l'eau, le Saint! (1961) (The Saint in the Water) (NYH-T).
(In the Bahamas, Simon fights Garwell and Luzik to help his friend Dan Morrow find an underwater treasure.)
66. Le Saint au volant (1961) (The Saint Behind the Wheel) (NYH-T).
(In England, the Saint takes part in a cross-country race to protect young automobile engineer Ian Foyle and his fiancée Margaret Westland from her villainous cousin Charles West.)
67. Pas de Vacances pour le Saint (1961) (No Holidays for the Saint) (Señor Saint).
Les Perles de Paix (The Pearls of Peace) (LSDM #66)
Escroquerie à la Révolution (The Revolution Racket) (LSDM #65)
Une Femme Romanesque (A Romantic Woman) (The Romantic Matron) (LSDM #67)
La Grenouille d'Or (The Golden Frog) (LSDM #69)
68. Le Saint au Bois Dormant (1961) (The Saint in Sleeping Beauty's Castle) (NYH-T).
(In the South of France, the Saint defeats Sir Charles to keeps his niece Wendy living in a fairy tales castle, Château Sorcelou, so that he can have her committed and keep her inheritance.)
69. Les Atouts du Saint (1962) (The Trumps of the Saint).
From The Brighter Buccaneer:
Un Mauvais Propriétaire (A Bad Landlord) (The Unpopular Landlord) (LSDM #31)
From The Saint Intervenes:
L'Hélicoptère Newdick (The Newdick Helicopter) (LSDM #18)
Une Leçon de Conduite (A Driving Lesson) (The Sleepless Knight) (LSDM #20)
Une Demoiselle en Détresse (The Damsel in Distress) (LSDM #17)
Une Charmante Famille (A Charming Family) (The Loving Brothers) (LSDM #4)
Un Placement à Long-Terme (A Long-Term Investment) (The Tall Timber) (LSDM #21)
Choc en Retour (Shock in Return) (The Art Photographer) (LSDM #19)
Le Saint Devient Alchimiste (The Saint Becomes an Alchemist) (The Mixture as Before) (LSDM #11)
(The Uncritical Publisher and The Noble Sportsman were not included.)
From The Happy Highwayman:
L'Homme qui croyait avoir de la chance (The Man Who Believed Himself To Be Lucky) (The Man Who Was Lucky) (LSDM #6)
Un Détective à la Coule (A Corrupt Detective) (The Smart Detective) (LSDM #3)
(Also see Nos. 24 & 76.)
70. Le Saint et Patricia (1962) (The Saint and Patricia) (Meet the Tiger!).
(First published in 1951 by Editions Gallimard under the title Le Secret de la Vieille Maison (The Secret of the Old House)).
(Reprinted in Omnibus No. 4)
71. Le Saint au Mexique (1962) (The Saint in Mexico) (NYH-T).
(Hamilton sends Simon to Mexico to uncover Inky Schatz, a forger of fake dollars. There, Simon defeats Mexican bandit El Tigre.)
(Also serialized in a reedited version in Télé-Moustique No. 2123 seq. 1966)
72. Le Saint et le Dernier Héros (1962) (The Saint and the Last Hero) (The Saint Closes the Case/The Last Hero).
(First published in the imprint "Detective", No. 33, Editions Gallimard, 1935, reprinted in 1951, also by Editions Gallimard under the title Le Dernier Héros (The Last Hero)).
(Reprinted in Omnibus No. 1)
73. Le Saint en Afrique (1963) (The Saint in Africa) (NYH-T).
(In Kanaba, Africa, Simon defeats Dr. Bogan and Weedy to help missionary Dr. Grey. Bogan seeks the secret of a miracle drug known only to the local tribe, the Zikus. Simon eventually becomes the new chief of the Ziskus.)
74. Le Saint à la Rescousse (1963) (The Saint to the Rescue).
Une Femme Aimante (A Loving Wife) (The Ever-Loving Spouse) (LSDM #75)
Un Terrain qui rapporte (The Fruitful Land) (LSDM #77)
Pair et Impair (Even and Odd) (The Percentage Player) (LSDM #79)
Le Marchand d'Eau (The Water Merchant) (LSDM #81)
Les Gentes Dames (The Gentle Ladies) (LSDM #83)
Le Saint sème le doute (The Saint Sows a Seed of Doubt) (The Element of Doubt) (LSDM #85)
75. Le Saint retrouve Greta (1963) (The Saint Meets Greta Again) (NYH-T).
(In the South of France, the Saint thwarts a new plot by Greta Morgan, who steals famous paintings and threatens to destroy them unless insurance companies pay her ransom money.)
76. Encore le Saint! (1964) (Again the Saint!) (The Brighter Buccaneer).
Les Travailleurs Intellectuels (The Brain Workers) (LSDM #89)
Le Saint s'occupe d'exportation (The Export Trade) (LSDM #22)
Le Handicap des Propriétaires (The Owners' Handicap) (LSDM #26)
Un Dur de Dur (The Tough Egg) (LSDM #28)
Un Curieux Baron (A Curious Baron) (The Bad Baron) (LSDM #29)
Le Bouddha de Cuivre (The Brass Buddha) (LSDM #30)
Le Saint donne la question (The Saint Uses The Question) (The Appalling Politician) (LSDM #5)
Une Escroquerie Nouvelle (The New Swindle) (LSDM #32)
Un Baiser de Cinq Mille Livres (The Five Thousand Pound Kiss) (LSDM #33) (also published in Mystère Magazine No. 206, 1965, under the title Le Saint Joue les Galants (The Saint Plays at Being a Playboy).)
Le Marchand d'Oseille (The Green Goods Man) (LSDM #34) (also published in Mystère Magazine No. 6, 1948, under the title Gros Profits sans Risques (Bif Progits Without Risks).)
Le Talon d'Achille (Achilles' Heel) (The Blind Spot) (LSDM #35)
Une Conclusion Inattendue (An Unexpected Conclusion) (The Unusual Ending) (LSDM #36)
(Also see Nos.24 and 69.)
77. Faites confiance au Saint (1964) (Trust the Saint).
Le Précieux Pirate (The Precious Pirate) (The Helpful Pirate) (LSDM #99)
Le Gros Gibier (The Bigger Game) (LSDM #101)
Une Opération de Propreté (A Cleaning Operation) (The Cleaner Cure) (LSDM #103)
Le Réformateur Intempérant (The Intemperate Reformer) (LSDM #105)
L'Incurable Cabotin (The Uncured Ham) (LSDM #107)
De l'Utilité d'un Monstre (The Convenient Monster) (LSDM #109)
78. Le Saint au Soleil (1966) (The Saint in the Sun).
Cannes: La Meilleure Souricière (The Better Mousetrap) (LSDM #114)
St. Tropez: L'Affreux Impressario (The Ugly Impresario) (LSDM #117)
England: Un Avare Prodigue (The Prodigal Miser) (LSDM #119)
Nassau: Deux Femmes Rapides (The Fast Women) (LSDM #122)
Florida: Le Joyeux Croque-Mort (The Jolly Undertaker) (LSDM #123)
Lucerne: Le Prisonnier Russe (The Russian Prisoner) (LSDM #126)
Provence: L'Héritière sans espoir (The Hopeless Heiress) (LSDM #129)
Omnibus Editions (Les Trois Saints)
Vol. 1 (1955) rep. Nos. 72, 2 & 6
Vol. 2 (1956) rep. Nos. 18, 10 & 9
Vol. 3 (1956) same as Vol. 1
Vol. 4 (1956) rep. Nos. 70, 5 & 8
Vol. 5 (1957) rep. Nos. 7, 11 & 13
Vol. 6 (1957) rep. Nos. 16, 15 & 12
Vol. 7 (1958) rep. Nos. 17, 19 & 20
Vol. 8 (1958) rep. Nos. 22, 14 & 21
Le Noble Sportsman (The Noble Sportsman)
- Le Saint Detective Magazine No. 24 (Febr. 1957)
Le Saint et les Prospecteurs (The Saint and the Prospectors)
- Le Saint Detective Magazine No. 112 (June 1964)
Bruce Taylor, a Hollywood writer, buys the rights to adapt the tall tales stories that an old prospector/gold miner Old Man Gibbs likes to tell.
Adapted from a NY Herald Tribune strip (September 13th- November 6th, 1954).
Vendetta pour le Saint (Vendetta for the Saint) (with Harry Harrison).
- Le Saint Detective Magazine No. 130-135 (Dec. 1965.-May 1966)
- Serialized in Télé 7 Jours (1967-68)
Amours, Gadgets et Colonel (Love, Gadgets and Colonel) (The Gadget Lovers) (with John Kruse & Fleming Lee)
- Le Saint Detective Magazine No. 151-152 (Sept.-Oct. 1967)
The Uncritical Publisher
Livre de Poche Originals (for the cover gallery, click here):
LDP 5362. Le Saint et les Faussaires (1980) (The Saint and the Forgers) (Catch the Saint) (by Fleming Lee & Norman Worker).
Le Marchand de Chefs d'Oeuvre (The Masterpiece Merchant)
L'Héritière Amoureuse (The Adoring Socialite)
LDP 5456. Le Saint à la Télévision (1980) (The Saint on TV) (by Fleming Lee & John Kruse).
Le Jeu ou la Mort (The Death Game)
L'Artiste de la Puissance (The Power Artist) (previously published in Le Saint Detective Magazine No. 153-154 (Nov.-Dec, 1967) as Un Puissant Artiste, translated by M. Michel-Tyl)
LDP 5501. Le Saint se Fache (1981) (The Saint Gets Angry) (The Saint in Trouble) (by Graham Weaver, John Kruse & Terence Feely).
Le Professeur Imprudent (The Imprudent Professor)
Le Sabbat Rouge (The Red Sabbath) (One Black September)Unpublished:
The Saint Returns (by Fleming Lee, D. R. Motton, Leigh Vance and John Kruse) (except that one of its two stories, The Gadget Lovers, translated by M. Michel-Tyl, was published in Le Saint Detective Magazine Nos. 151-152)
The Saint and the Fiction Makers (by Fleming Lee and John Kruse)
The Saint Abroad (by Fleming Lee and Michael Pertwee)
The Saint in Pursuit (by Fleming Lee and Leslie Charteris) (arguably, since an earlier French version was published as Fayard No. 64)
The Saint and the People Importers (by Fleming Lee and Leslie Charteris)
Send for the Saint (by Peter Bloxsom, John Kruse and Donald James)
The Saint and the Templar Treasure (by Graham Weaver and Donne Avenell)
Count on the Saint (by Graham Weaver and Donne Avenell)
Salvage for the Saint (by Peter Bloxsom and John Kruse)
Capture the Saint (by Burl Barer)
Le Saint (The Saint) (by Burl Barer) (Flammarion/J'ai Lu, 1999)
"Le Saint en France" by Thomas Narcejac (in Confidences dans ma Nuit, coll., Athénée, 1946, reprinted as Usurpation d'Identité, credited to Boileau-Narcejac, Hachette, 1980).
This is a collection of literary pastiches -- short stories written in the styles of Simenon, Maurice Leblanc, Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, G. K. Chesterton, Pierre Very -- and Leslie Charteris. In the prologue, Narcejac is recovering from his wounds in a WW II hospital and meets Lupin, Maigret, Dr. Watson, Father Brown, the Saint, and Pierre Very (creator of Prosper Lepicq)
Appendix 3: On French Radio
Three Saint radio adaptations were broadcast on Radio-Sottens, a Swiss-based, French-language radio channel, as part of the ENIGMES ET AVENTURES (Enigmas & Adventures) anthology show.
The numbering of the stories refers to the Fayard catalog.
Le Saint à Miami (No. 17) (11 & 15 July 1949) (Adapt: Roland Jay)
Le Saint à Hollywood (incl. in No. 20) (18 & 22 July 1949) (Adapt: Roland Jay)
L'Homme qui ne pouvait pas mourir (incl. in No. 18) (25 & 29 July 1949) (Adapt: Roland Jay)
Appendix 4: French-English Text Comparisons
OF FRENCH TEXT
|The fact that Simon Templar had never heard of the "Z-Man" was merely a tremendous proof that the Z-Man himself, his victims and the police authorities had joined forces in a monumental conspiracy of silence. For the Saint invariably had a zephyr finger on the pulse of the underworld, and the various forms of fun find frolic that went on in the ranks of the ungodly without his knowledge were so few that for all practical purposes they might have been regarded as nonexistent.||Le Saint n'avait jamais entendu parler du mystérieux bandit que l'on appelait «Monsieur Z».||The Saint had never heard of the mysterious gangster they called "Mister Z".|
|He was lunching alone at the Dorchester Grill when the first ripple of new adventure irrigated the dusty dryness of a particularly arid spell. He had been ruminating on the perfidious dullness of the cloudy day when the grillroom was suddenly supplied with its own sunshine. A girl had entered.||Il déjeunait seul, ce jour-là, au grill-room de l'hôtel Dorchester, lorsque le silence se fit soudain dans la salle. Une femme venait d'entrer.||That day, he was lunching alone in the grill-room of the Dorchester Hotel when silence suddenly fell upon the room. A woman had entered.|
|She was alone. She was tall and trim waisted and as graceful as a dancer, and the soft waves of her fair golden hair rippled in the gentle stir of air caused by her own motion. Exquisitely dressed, devastatingly sure of herself, she was escorted to a vacant table in a sudden hush of awed admiration that enveloped a world-famous film producer, two visiting bishops, three cosmopolitan millionaires, a music-hall comedian, a couple of ancient marquises and about fifty other minor celebrities, in a simultaneous speechlessness of homage.||Elle était seule. Grande, svelte, blonde, elle avait une démarche souple de danseuse. Elégante, sûre de soi, elle se dirigea vers une table vacante, escortée par le silence admiratif des personnalités présentes : un producteur de films américain; deux millionnaires cosmopolites; une vedette de music-hall; une marquise authentique et une cinquantaine d'autres célébrités de moindre importance.||She was alone. Tall, svelte, blonde, she had the graceful stride of a dancer. Elegant, self-assured, she walked to a vacant table, escorted by the admiring silence of the present personalities : an American film producer; two cosmopolitan millionaires; a music-hall star; an authentic marquise and about fifty other minor celebrities.|
|Simon Templar, who had as many human instincts as any of the aforesaid, would have stared at her anyway; but somehow he found himself watching her with even more than that natural curiosity and interest. And a faint tentative tingle went through him as he realized why. For an instant, when he had first raised his eyes and seen her, he had wondered if Patricia Holm had missed an appointment of her own and had come to join him. This girl was surprisingly like Pat; the same height, the same fair grace, the same radiant charm. There was something vaguely familiar about her face too; and now the Saint was no longer reminded, of Pat. He wondered who she was, and he was not the kind of man to be satisfied with wondering.||Simon Templar, qui avait au moins autant de goût que n'importe laquelle des personnes sus-nommées, l'avait regardée avec intérêt, mais ce qui le frappait par-dessus tout, c'etait la ressemblance de cette jeune femme avec Patricia Holm. II se demanda qui elle était.||Simon Templar, who had at least as much taste as any of the aforesaid personalities, had watched her with interest, but what had struck him above all was the young woman's resemblance with Patricia Holm. He wondered who she was.|
|"Tell me, Alphonse," he murmured to the waiter who was hovering about him like a ministering angel, "who is the vision in smoke blue at that table over there?"||- Dites-moi, Alphonse, murmura-t-il au garçon, qui est la dame en bleu?||"Tell me, Alphonse," he murmured to the waiter, "who is the lady in blue?"|
|The waiter looked across the room. "That, sir," he said, with a certain visible contempt for such ignorance, "is Miss Beatrice Avery."||Alphonse regarda le Saint avec un certain mépris.|
- C'est Miss Beatrice Avery, dit-il.
|Alphonse looked at the Saint with some contempt.|
"She," he said, "is Miss Beatrice Avery."
|Simon wrinkled his brow. "The name strikes a chord but fails to connect."||- Je connais ce nom, dit Templar, fronçant les sourcils. Qu'est-ce qu'elle vend?||"I know that name," said Simon, wrinkling his brow. "What does she sell?"|
|"Miss Avery is a film star, sir."||- Miss Avery est une vedette de l'écran, répondit Alphonse sévèrement.||"Miss Avery is a film star," replied Alphonse severely.|
|"So she is. I've seen photographs of her here and there."||- C'est cela. J'ai du voir des photographies.||"That's right. I must have seen her photographs."|
|"Her latest picture, Love, the Swindler is the best thing she's done," volunteered the waiter dreamily. "Have you seen it, sir?||- Monsieur l'a-t-il vue dans son dernier film? insista le garçon; L'Amour, ce gredin. Elle est divine.||"You may have seen her last picture, Sir?" the waiter insisted. "Love, the Swindler. She is divine."|
|"Fortunately, no," answered the Saint, glancing with some pain at the waiter's enraptured face, and then averting his own. "Swindlers have never interested me -- much."||- Je ne l'ai pas vue, répondit Simon; et je n'aime pas les gredins.||"I did not see it," answered Simon; "And I do not like swindlers."|
The size of the Fayard volumes were standardized at 222 pages. Consequently, the Michel-Tyls had to cut down and edit Charteris' original English prose in order to fit the format, while striving to retain his idiosyncratic charm and flavor. We have randomly selected the first few opening paragraphs of The Beauty Specialist, translated as Le Saint contre Mr. Z (Fayard No. 16), as a sample above.
This article first appeared in a slightly different form in the Summer '94 issue of The Epistle.
Thanks to Ian Dickerson for Research Assist, Burl Barer and Jean-Luc Buard for additional information. Thanks to Jacques Baudou, Dan Bodenheimer, Marcel Bernadac, Jean-Pierre Bourgeron, Rinus Daane, Ian Dickerson, Rémi Dienis, Olivier Jaspart, Hillebrand Komrij, Charles Moreau, Gerard Nijmeijer, Patrick Verdant and Terry Morris for additional cover scans. Also thanks to Jacques Baudou and Dominique from the Bibliothèque des Littératures Policieres.